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Research on how onions affect blood sugar in humans has been more extensive. The sulfur compound called allyl propyl disulphide may increase insulin production and lower blood glucose levels. An October 2010 preliminary study published in the journal "Environmental Health Insights" found that red onion was effective at reducing blood sugar in people with diabetes. Glucose readings in type 1 and type 2 diabetics fell and remained lowered for four hours after eating. More research is needed, but these findings suggest that onion could be helpful in diabetes management.